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Petróleo e soberania nacional

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A Venezuela é o 6º país que mais exporta petróleo no mundo, cerca de 3 milhões de barris diários, algo disputado pelas economias industrializadas, entre as quais os Estados Unidos.

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Petroleo_PDVSA(7’29” / 3.43 Mb) - A Venezuela possui a maior reserva comprovada de petróleo mundial – com aproximadamente 297 bilhões de barris. O país é o 6º no posto de produtor de petróleo, o que lhe confere um peso importante no cenário geopolítico. Hoje, a Venezuela é exportadora de 3 milhões de barris de petróleo por dia, algo disputado pelas economias industrializadas, entre as quais os Estados Unidos.

De acordo com o especialista em relações internacionais e professor da Faculdade Cásper Líbero, Igor Fuser, autor do livro “Petróleo e Poder”, a Venezuela apresenta hoje poder de manobra no cenário mundial.

“Isso acontece porque o petróleo continua sendo e vai continuar, ainda por muito tempo, a ser o principal recurso de energia do mundo. Apesar do avanço dos combustíveis renováveis, ainda assim, o processo de substituição do petróleo vai demorar muito tempo. E, na medida em que as reservas de petróleo tendem ao esgotamento, aqueles países com grandes reservas vão adquirir uma posição de maior influência no cenário internacional.”

Os grandes veículos de comunicação costumam fazer afirmações sobre a instabilidade política na Venezuela, inserindo o país no contexto de Irã, Líbia e Iraque, grandes exportadores de petróleo. No entanto, Fuser defende que há na Venezuela um governo há mais de dez anos com alta aprovação popular, reafirmada em eleições, o que rompe a tese de falta de democracia naquele país.

“O que causa preocupação na situação venezuelana é o confronto entre a Venezuela e os Estados Unidos, que jamais aceitaram que qualquer país da América Latina tivesse uma posição de independência, adotasse uma política soberana. No governo Chávez, a Venezuela tem conseguido fazer uso da sua boa situação econômica, obtida graças às exportações de petróleo, para se comportar na cena internacional de maneira soberana.”

Parcerias regionais

Fuser cita como exemplo de política soberana o acordo praticado com Cuba, no qual se troca o petróleo de que a ilha necessita pelo serviço de milhares de professores, médicos, dentistas e enfermeiros cubanos, que trabalham dando apoio a projetos sociais do governo Chávez.

“Isso incomoda muito os Estados Unidos, que querem asfixiar Cuba pela via econômica, através do embargo, e a Venezuela oferece uma saída para esse embargo. Então, os Estados Unidos estão tentando de todas as formas desestabilizar, sabotar, dificultar a vida do governo Chávez, inclusive estimulando articulações golpistas como a que aconteceu em 2002.”

Os grupos que ocuparam o centro do poder, no passado, ainda defendem que a economia da Venezuela seja dependente de um único produto, sujeito às oscilações da economia internacional. Historicamente, desde a década de 1920, o país tornou-se um exportador de petróleo, dependente do recurso, sem se industrializar de maneira diversificada. Esse é um atual desafio para o avanço do governo Chávez.

Renda do petróleo

De acordo com Fuser, o governo bolivariano operou uma inversão na política de aplicação da renda petrolífera. Antes da década de 1990 e da primeira vitória de Chávez, as transnacionais petroleiras não retinham seus lucros na Venezuela, mas os aplicavam em outros países.

“A parte mais importante desse recurso é aplicada internamente para o desenvolvimento econômico e social da Venezuela. E uma parte é aplicada externamente de uma forma completamente diferente do que se fazia antes, com o objetivo de reforçar a integração latino-americana. Projetos como a Petrocaribe, por exemplo, de fornecimento de petróleo a preços subsidiados para outros países latino-americanos de modo a impulsionar projetos de desenvolvimento. A própria criação da Alternativa Bolivariana para os povos de nossa América (Alba) é financiada com petróleo venezuelano.”

Essa mudança na gestão do petróleo passa por uma nova política para a empresa controlada pelo Estado venezuelano, a PDVSA (Petróleos de Venezuela S.A.). Na tese do coordenador nacional da Federação Única dos Petroleiros (FUP), João Antônio de Moraes, tanto a PDVSA como a Petrobras deveriam atender a um projeto de integração energética na América Latina. Hoje, dentro de cada país, a PDVSA cumpre um papel social mais forte se comparado à Petrobras, devido ao controle estatal sobre a empresa.

“Nós identificamos na PDVSA um caráter mais nacional, até porque a PDVSA tem um conteúdo nacional maior do que a Petrobras. Então, no quesito Venezuela a atuação é diferente e a empresa tem um papel mais voltado para o país. A Petrobras também tem um papel importante na nossa economia, mas ela é uma empresa de economia mista, então os negócios internamente têm interferência maior na Petrobras. É verdade que internacionalmente as duas atuam com características de negócios, como multinacionais fora do país.”

Moraes comenta sobre a lei que obrigou as empresas petrolíferas instaladas na Venezuela a explorar os recursos em parceria com a estatal. Esse modelo permite ao Estado venezuelano maior investimento em questões sociais.

“A PDVSA sempre foi uma empresa a serviço do abastecimento de petróleo para os Estados Unidos, no ramo dos negócios. No entanto, a partir de Chávez, essa empresa, que sempre foi estratégica para a economia venezuelana pelo aporte de recursos que trazia ao país, passou a desempenhar também um papel social muito importante, quando passou a se envolver em vários programas sociais e priorizar mais o país que a exportação e o aporte de recursos.”

Por Pedro Carrano,

Junho de 2012.

......................................................

Acesse todas as reportagens em texto e áudio da série especial “Venezuela, nos passos do desenvolvimento”, da Radioagência NP.

Programa 1: Políticas sociais e redução da pobreza

Programa 2: Políticas econômicas e as nacionalizações

Programa 3: Petróleo e soberania nacional

Programa 4: Conflitos com a mídia e pluralidade da informação

Programa 5: Sistema democrático e participação popular

Programa 6: Relação com o Brasil e integração regional

Programa 7: Autonomia política e econômica latino-americana

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