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“Serviço sujo”, trabalho honesto: o dia a dia dos profissionais da limpeza

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A grandiosidade desse trabalho ocorre em estados e cidades Brasil afora. São trabalhadores que atuam na varrição de ruas, limpeza de bueiros e na coleta de lixo domiciliar e hospitalar. Porém, a precarização, o preconceito e a invisibilidade são as características que mais marcam a profissão.

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(5’13” / 1.2 Mb) - Somente no estado de São Paulo, eles representam mais de 100 mil trabalhadores da limpeza de áreas públicas e da coleta de lixo. São varredores, auxiliares de limpeza, coletores de lixo e jardineiros. Na capital paulista, são 16 mil profissionais que conduzem a limpeza de 17 mil Km de vias públicas, totalizando 51 mil ruas. Por dia, o conjunto desses trabalhadores coletam mais de 12 mil toneladas de resíduos.

A grandiosidade desse trabalho em São Paulo se repete em outros estados e cidades Brasil afora. São trabalhadores que atuam na varrição de ruas, limpeza de bueiros e na coleta de lixo domiciliar e hospitalar. Porém, a precarização, o preconceito e a invisibilidade desse trabalho são as características que mais marcam a profissão.

De acordo com pesquisa do Dieese deste ano, um em cada quatro trabalhadores de limpeza no estado paulista já sofreu discriminação. Entre os garis, esse percentual aumenta, chegando a 42% (quase a metade da categoria).

Ana Maria dos Santos, 46 anos, há mais de 18 como varredora da Codesavi (empresa da Prefeitura de São Vicente, litoral paulista), conta como sente a relação da sociedade com sua profissão.

“A sociedade às vezes passa por nós como se não tivesse ninguém. São poucos que nos respeitam. Têm muitas pessoas que fazem de conta que a gente não existe. Mas eu faço questão de manter minha cabeça erguida, pois não é nenhum tipo de serviço humilhante. Graças a Deus eu ganho meu dinheiro honestamente.”

Em todos os dias de trabalho a rotina é a mesma. Ana acorda às 4h30 da manhã, para iniciar o serviço às 6 horas. O trabalho é intenso, principalmente no inverno, quando a folhagem das árvores cai; e segue até o meio-dia, com intervalo de 15 minutos para descanso e alimentação. Este ano, através de uma mobilização dos trabalhadores, o salário dos varredores de São Vicente foi reajustado e passou de R$ 639 para R$ 766.

Saúde e segurança

Os riscos de saúde e segurança do profissional que atua na limpeza pública é outra questão preocupante. Entre as necessidades básicas estão os uniformes e equipamentos de trabalho. Sobre sua experiência no litoral paulista, Ana Maria relata que alguns produtos melhoraram, como as vassouras, que agora são mais leves, pois antes levavam a complicações ortopédicas que faziam com que muitos trabalhadores se aposentassem por invalidez. Porém, a varredora afirma que outros equipamentos ainda são muito precários.

“A gente pode trocar de roupa duas vezes por ano, a cada seis meses, quando a gente chega a trocar, as roupas já estão rasgando. Nós também exigimos da Codesavi (empresa) um material de chuva, porque nós trabalhamos também na chuva. Eles nos trouxeram uma capa que com uma semana de uso, ou até menos, a capa já estava toda rasgada.”

O trânsito é outro complicador no trabalho dos varredores e coletores de lixo, pois além da poluição e do barulho, muitos motoristas não respeitam os trabalhadores da limpeza. Esse relato vem do ajudante de limpeza Alexandre Ferreira da Silva, 32 anos, que trabalha há 6 anos para a Prefeitura de São Paulo, varrendo as ruas da Vila Madalena, zona oeste da cidade.

“O que tem de mais perigoso na profissão que ocorre no meio da rua é por conta dos carros, porque nós atravessamos para um lado e outro, e tem muitas pessoas que nem param [para passarmos].”

Alexandre, morador do município de Franco da Rocha, Região Metropolitana de São Paulo, levanta diariamente às 3h30 da manhã, inicia o trabalho às 6h e só terminas às 14 horas. Ele conta que a jornada de trabalho é cansativa, e que uma carga horária menor seria positiva para o trabalhador.

“É uma boa, porque dá para fazer muitas coisas e descansa mais o corpo, porque esse serviço é muito corrido. Como nós pegamos 6 horas da manhã, nós rodamos muito por aqui.”

Projetos de Lei

Uma proposta neste sentido tramita na Câmara dos Deputados. Ela pretende estabelecer uma carga de trabalho de seis horas diárias, e 36 semanais, para garis e motoristas de veículos coletores de lixo (PL 1590/2011), sem que ocorra a redução dos salários.

O Projeto de Lei foi aprovado pela Comissão de Trabalho, Administração e Serviço Público da Casa neste mês de julho, e segue para a Comissão de Constituição, Justiça e Cidadania.

Outro projeto em discussão na Câmara pretende considerar insalubre e penosa a atividade profissional dos empregados em limpeza, asseio, conservação e coleta de lixo (PL 3995/2012). Junto a ele está a proposta para assegurar aposentadoria especial para esses trabalhadores aos 25 anos de serviço (PL 7159/2010)

De São Paulo, da Radioagência NP, Vivian Fernandes.

18/07/12

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